The Antarctic Peninsula is an extremely harsh place to live. Air temperatures can range from -34 to 10 degrees Celsius, winds are very fast, the summer growing season is really short, air is dry, and pH can range from 3 to 12 (partly because of Adélie penguin waste). Yet several small invertebrates are at home here.
There’s Belgica antarctica, a wingless midge thatsurvives having all its bodily fluids frozen, and can tolerate dehydration of up to 35% of its body weight. It lives for two years in order to accumulate enough energy during the short growing seasons.
Cryptopygus antarcticus is a springtailthat lives for three or more years before it gathers up enough energy to reproduce. It also floats on water due to it hydrophobic exoskeleton, and supercools to -30 Celsius.